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Table 1 Depressive symptoms by patient characteristics and test for interaction for patient characteristics and sex

From: The association between intimate partner violence, alcohol and depression in family practice

  N Mean (SD) Diff (95% CI) P-value Interaction term P-value
Gender         
   Male 2491 9.76 (10.08) Ref     
   Female 4991 10.9 (10.53) 1.03 (0.51, 1.54) < 0.001   
Age group (Years)         
   18-24 323 14.4 (11.44) Ref     0.18
   25-34 842 12.54 (10.82) -1.84 (-3.15, -0.52) < 0.001 -3.39  
   35-44 1443 11.15 (10.88) -3.10 (-4.34, -1.86)   -2.88  
   45-54 1763 10.83 (10.90) -3.47 (-4.69, -2.25)   -2.50  
   55-64 1694 9.67 (9.95) -4.59 (-5.81, -3.36)   -3.02  
   65-75 1361 8.37 (8.48) -5.87 (-7.12, -4.61)   -1.68  
Ever afraid of partner         
   Not ever afraid 6042 9.23 (9.36) Ref     
   Ever afraid of partner 1202 16.49 (12.55) 7.14 (6.52, 7.76) < 0.001 -2.5 0.003
Hazardous drinking         
   No 6218 10.01 (10.09) Ref     
   Yes 1228 12.93 (11.42) 2.97 (2.34, 3.60) < 0.001 1.41 0.03
Current smoker         
   No 6107 9.55 (9.56) Ref     
   Yes 1357 14.76 (12.58) 5.12 (4.52, 5.72) < 0.001 -1.1 0.09
Marital status         
   Never married/single 1334 13.46 (11.63) Ref   < 0.001   0.01
   Widowed/divorced/aaseparated 1312 13.38 (12.28) -0.11 (-0.88, 0.66)   -1.37  
   Married 4770 8.9 (9.04) -4.51 (-5.14, -3.89)   0.82  
Sexuality         
   Exclusively heterosexual 6803 10.16 (10.21) Ref     
   Not exclusively heterosexual 354 14.65 (11.76) 4.44 (3.31, 5.57) < 0.001 2.35 0.05
Lives alone         
   No 6476 10.11 (10.05) Ref     
   Yes 996 13.17 (12.05) 3.09 (2.40, 3.78) < 0.001 -3.82 < 0.001
Employment status         
   Employed/Student 4802 9.93 (9.87) Ref   < 0.001   0.75
   Not employed/not in paid employment 2274 9.89 (9.72) 0.07 (-0.44, 0.57)   -0.06  
   Unable to work 401 20.85 (13.85) 11.01 (9.98, 12.04)   0.77  
Highest level of education         
   Completed year 12 or less 4182 11.07 (10.57) Ref   < 0.001   0.57
   Certificate or diploma 1566 10.53 (10.64) -0.71 (-1.31, -0.11)   0.65  
   Bachelor degree or higher 1718 9.1 (9.52) -2.18 (-2.79, -1.57)   0.41  
Pension or benefit main source of income         
   No 5518 9.6 (9.60) Ref     
   Yes 1890 13.11 (12.06) 3.62 (3.08, 4.16) < 0.001 -0.28 0.62
GP location         
   Urban (RRMA 1 & 2) 5063 10.56 (10.46) Ref     
   Rural (RRMA 3-5) 2433 10.42 (10.22) -0.14 (-1.22, 0.95) 0.81 -0.55 0.32
Country of birth         
   Other 1384 10.51 (10.20) Ref    -0.11 0.86
   Australia 6093 10.53 (10.43) 0.11 (-0.50, 0.72) 0.72   
Long term illness/health problem or disability         
   No 4964 8.81 (9.06) Ref     
   Yes 2363 14.06 (12.00) 5.33 (4.83, 5.82) < 0.001 -1.64 0.002
Health rating         
   Excellent 763 5.4 (6.79) Ref   < 0.001   0.05
   Very good 2782 7.37 (7.69) 2.04 (1.28, 2.78)   1.53  
   Good 2644 11.54 (10.00) 6.18 (5.42, 6.94)   2.07  
   Fair 1012 17.19 (12.28) 11.9 (11.02, 12.79)   0.37  
   Poor 206 25 (14.18) 19.6 (18.19, 21.08)   1.83  
  1. Ref = reference category for patient characteristics
  2. SD = Standard deviation
  3. Difference in mean depressive symptoms (Diff), respective 95% confidence intervals (CI) and p-values calculated using mixed effects linear regression using restricted maximum likelihood estimation (REML), treating GP practice as a random effect
  4. Interaction term for each patient characteristic and sex and related p-value