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Table 3 Choice of antibiotic (%) in patients with upper respiratory tract infections before and after the intervention

From: Health Alliance for prudent antibiotic prescribing in patients with respiratory tract infections (HAPPY AUDIT) -impact of a non-randomised multifaceted intervention programme

  Before intervention (95% CI)*
  Penicillin-V Amoxicillin Amoxicillin-Clavulanic acid Macrolide Quinolone Tetracycline Cephalosporin Other
Argentina 15.3 (8.2-22.4) 54.7 (38.3-71.1) 16.9 (5.0-28.8) 2.3 (0.7-4.5) 1.5 (0-3.0) 0.1 (0-0.4) 4.1 (0-8.5) 10.0 (0-21.1)
Denmark 79.6 (74.0-85.3) 9.2 (5.9-12.6) 0.2 (0-0.5) 7.2 (4.7-9.8) 0.2 (0-0.5) 0.2 (0-0.5) 0 (0-0) 3.9 (0.3-7.5)
Lithuania 24.2 (16.7-31.8) 37.6 (26.0-49.1) 18.1 (13.3-22.8) 6.5 (4.2-8.9) 0 (0-0) 1.8 (0-3.8) 10.9 (4.5-17.4) 0.8 (0-1.6)
Russia 9.0 (3.4-14.6) 42.5 (31.3-53.8) 29.2 (18.6-39.8) 14.1 (5.8-22.3) 1.9 (0-4.0) 1.4 (0-4.0) 1.8 (0.6-2.9) 0.5 (0-1.0)
Spain 10.1 (7.1-13.2) 34.8 (30.2-39.4) 32.2 (27.6-36.7) 9.0 (6.2-11.9) 1.8 (0.9-2.8) 0.1 (0-0.2) 3.8 (2.6-5.1) 8.8 (3.3-14.4)
Sweden 78.1 (70.6-85.5) 6.8 (3.5-10.2) 0 (0-0) 2.9 (0.7-5.1) 0 (0-0) 6.8 (0.3-11.0) 2.1 (0.1-4.2) 3.2 (0.9-5.6)
  After intervention (95% CI)*
Argentina 31.2 (22.6-39.8) 40.1 (26.6-53.6) 8.1 (3.5-12.7) 2.0 (0-4.2) 0.5 (0-1.2) 0.3 (0-1.0) 0.5 (0-1.2) 22.4 (7.2-37.7)
Denmark 83.7 (79.4-87.9) 10.0 (6.2-13.9) 2.0 (0.2-3.9) 3.0 (1.7-4.5) 0.3 (0-0.8) 0 (0-0) 0 (0-0) 1.2 (0.1-2.2)
Lithuania 68.5 (58.5-78.6) 17.6 (8.4-26.8) 2.8 (1.2-4.3) 7.9 (4.0-11.7) 0 (0-0) 0.5 (0-1.4) 0.5 (0-1.4) 2.3 (0-6.1)
Russia 19.4 (8.8-30.1) 55.0 (43.5-66.4) 12.8 (5.2-20.4) 5.7 (0-12.5) 0 (0-0) 0.9 (0-2.1) 4.3 (0.7-7.8) 1.9 (0-4.5)
Spain 31.0 (26.2-35.9) 29.8 (25.0-34.5) 26.4 (22.0-30.7) 4.7 (2.9-6.4) 1.7 (0.7-2.6) 0 (0-0) 2.7 (1.3-4.1) 4.1 (1.1-7.2)
Sweden 75.9 (70.2-81.7) 7.1 (3.7-10.7) 1.2 (0-2.7) 3.8 (1.3-6.3) 0 (0-0) 6.7 (3.4-10.1) 2.5 (0.5-4.6) 2.9 (1.1-4.8)
  1. *: Adjusted for clustering to GPs