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Table 4 Choice of antibiotic (%) in patients with lower respiratory tract infections before and after the intervention

From: Health Alliance for prudent antibiotic prescribing in patients with respiratory tract infections (HAPPY AUDIT) -impact of a non-randomised multifaceted intervention programme

  Before intervention (95% CI)*
  Penicillin-V Amoxicillin Amoxicillin-Clavulanic acid Macrolide Quinolone Tetracycline Cephalosporin Other
Argentina 4.2 (1.6-6.9) 52.6 (38.6-66.7) 24.5 (13.8-35.2) 9.7 (5.5-14.0) 1.6 (0-3.5) 0 (0-0) 4.6 (1.1-8.2) 10.3 (1.3-19.3)
Denmark 60.0 (55.3-65.7) 13.6 (10.0-17.2) 1.3 (0-2.9) 23.1 (17.6-28.5) 0.8 (0-1.8) 1.0 (0-2.4) 0 (0-0) 0.8 (0-1.6)
Lithuania 6.9 (1.7-12.2) 33.4 (21.9-44.9) 25.4 (17.3-33.5) 19.7 (14.8-24.7) 1.7 (0.3-3.1) 1.8 (0.3-3.5) 10.7 (3.6-17.9) 1.3 (0-2.6)
Russia 4.7 (0.4-9.1) 33.7 (24.1-43.4) 28.0 (17.1-38.9) 13.8 (5.8-21.7) 4.7 (0-9.5) 0.4 (0-1.0) 20.2 (13.1-27.2) 0.8 (0-1.7)
Spain 0.2 (0-0.5) 19.3 (15.8-22.8) 44.9 (40.7-49.1) 13.5 (10.6-16.4) 16.0 (12.9-19.1) 0.4 (0-0.9) 3.6 (2.3-5.0) 2.5 (0.6-4.3)
Sweden 30.1 (19.2-40.9) 14.2 (8.0-20.3) 0 (0-0) 6.2 (1.9-10.4) 0 (0-0) 48.7 (39.1-58.3) 1.8 (0-4.1) 0 (0-0)
  After intervention (95% CI)*
Argentina 3.3 (0.5-6.2) 35.5 (26.3-44.6) 34.6 (25.4-43.8) 19.4 (9.8-29.0) 2.4 (0-5.3) 0.9 (0-1.8) 4.9 (0.4-9.4) 21.4 (2.0-40.9)
Denmark 70.7 (65.7-75.8) 10.8 (6.7-14.9) 6.2 (3.4-9.0) 11.1 (8.2-14.1) 0 (0-0) 0.2 (0-0.5) 0 (0-0) 0.9 (0-1.8)
Lithuania 38.1 (25.1-51.0) 22.9 (13.8-32.1) 6.1 (0.2-12.0) 22.1 (14.3-29.9) 0 (0-0) 3.0 (0.9-5.2) 5.2 (2.0-8.4) 3.4 (0-7.7)
Russia 10.7 (1.8-19.4) 47.9 (35.0-60.7) 17.9 (8.1-27.8) 6.4 (1.9-10.9) 2.5 (0-5.2) 0 (0-0) 15.8 (6.7-24.9) 0.4 (0-1.3)
Spain 0.5 (0-1.0) 22.5 (18.0-27.0) 42.8 (37.7-48.0) 12.9 (9.7-16.0) 16.1 (12.7-19.4) 0 (0-0) 3.9 (2.0-5.9) 1.8 (0.9-2.8)
Sweden 43.5 (29.8-57.3) 10.6 (3.3-17.9) 0 (0-0) 5.9 (1.5-10.2) 0 (0-0) 37.6 (23.5-51.8) 0 (0-0) 2.3 (0-5.6)
  1. *: Adjusted for clustering to GPs