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Table 2 Median and mean 3-year costs in Euros per patient in primary and specialist care (by frequent attender status)#

From: Morbidity and doctor characteristics only partly explain the substantial healthcare expenditures of frequent attenders: a record linkage study between patient data and reimbursements data

  Frequent attender status
  Non 1 year 2 years 3 years
Characteristics Median Mean (SD) Median Mean (SD)   Mean (SD) Median Mean (SD)
Primary care physician (PCP) 283 338 (197) 444 525 (300) 613 722 (402) 810 1005 (664)
Emergency care by the PCP - 20 (164) 0 51 (114) 0 83 (156) 63 156 (334)
Physical therapy1 0 41 (379) 0 77 (558) 0 99 (624) 0 181 (931)
Complementary medicine1 0 16 (98) 0 24 (122) 0 37 (142) 0 43 (160)
Laboratory costs 0 19 (49) 0 42 (69) 40 65 (89) 52 86 (101)
Medication:    0   0   0  
psychotropic medication 0 86 (719) 0 134 (760) 0 156 (670) 16 233 (672)
antibiotics 0 15 (182) 11 28 (72) 19 40 (79) 33 63 (108)
painkillers 0 19 (165) 0 52 (358) 0 50 (305) 16 99 (296)
other medication 135 1091 (4019) 401 1717 (4724) 756 2621 (6745) 1262 2808 (4542)
Somatic primary care costs 511 1553 (4212) 1049 2501 (5052) 1696 3696 (7035) 2626 4421 (5316)
Psychological primary care costs 0 92 (721) 0 48 (764) 0 176 (677) 20 253 (679)
All primary care costs 540 1645 (4284) 1137 2650 (5145) 1839 3872 (7056) 2746 4674 (5583)
All specialist care costs 379 3399 (14124) 1753 5866 (16752) 3023 6911 (12877) 5393 11 150 (18 582)
  1. #All differences between means (and medians) were statistically significant at the <0.001 level.
  2. 1Only the costs reimbursed by the insurer.