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Table 3 The effects of frequent attender status on mean costs in primary and specialist care adjusted for all patient characteristics and morbidities (in Euros) additional costs #

From: Morbidity and doctor characteristics only partly explain the substantial healthcare expenditures of frequent attenders: a record linkage study between patient data and reimbursements data

  Primary care difference (SE) Specialist care difference (SE)
Non-Frequently Attending Patients (reference)a 0 0
1-year Frequent Attenders 481 (44) 1242 (117)
2-year Frequent Attenders 800 (73) 1897 (192)
3-year Frequent Attenders 1268 (115) 4025 (302)
  1. #All effects were statistically significant at the <0.001 level.
  2. Adjusted for sex, ethnicity, age, number of active problems, diabetes, respiratory, cardiovascular, social, psychological and medically unexplained problems, cancer, locomotor, skin and digestive problems.
  3. aMean costs for non-FAs:1645 Euros (all primary care) and 3399 Euros (all specialist care).