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Table 2 Frequency distribution of respondents by depression status and socio-demographic characteristics and other selected variables

From: Depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among diabetics in Malaysia: a cross sectional study in an urban primary care setting

Variables Depression symptoms P cOR 95% CI
No (n) (%) Yes (n) ‡ (%) Lower Upper
Age (Years)      0.593    
30 – 39* 138 87.3 20 12.7 - - - -
40 - 49 407 88.3 54 11.7 0.752 0.915 0.53 1.58
50 - 59 796 89.5 93 10.5 0.413 0.806 0.48 1.35
60 – 69 645 88.6 83 11.4 0.655 0.888 0.53 1.50
70 - 79 205 86.9 33 13.1 0.730 1.111 0.61 2.02
≥ 80 28 82.4 6 17.6 0.443 1.479 0.55 4.01
Sex         
Male* 886 90.9 89 9.1 - - - -
Female 1332 87.0 200 13.0 0.030 1.49 1.15 1.94
Ethnicity (n=2507)      0.006    
Malay* 1155 90.1 127 9.9   - - -
Chinese 390 89.0 48 11.0 0.529 1.12 0.79 1.59
Asian Indian 673 85.5 114 14.5 0.002 1.54 1.18 2.02
Educational Level      0.006    
None 231 81.9 54 18.1 0.001 2.24 1.37 3.65
Primary education 837 88.9 105 11.1 0.414 1.20 0.77 1.86
Secondary education 883 89.6 102 10.4 0.655 1.11 0.71 1.72
Tertiary education* 268 90.5 28 9.5 - - - -
Monthly household income (MHI) in Malaysian Ringgit (MYR)      0.006    
< 1,000 92 80.7 22 19.3 0.001 1.90 1.28 2.80
1,000 -< 3,000 238 85.9 39 14.1 0.021 1.54 1.07 2.23
≥ 3,000* 276 88.2 37 11.8 - - - -
Marital Status      0.000    
Never married 55 77.5 16 22.5 0.001 2.72 1.53 4.83
Divorced/widowed/separated 1850 90.3 198 9.7 0.000 2.23 1.67 2.99
Married* 314 80.7 75 19.3 - - - -
Current Job Status      0.013    
Unemployed 438 85.4 75 14.6 0.005 1.62 1.16 2.26
Housewives 682 87.3 99 12.7 0.047 1.37 1.00 1.82
Retired 334 90.8 34 9.2 0.855 0.96 0.63 1.46
Employed* 765 90.4 81 9.6 - - - -
BMI (kg/m 2 )      0.207    
< 25.0* 686 88.1 93 11.9 - - - -
≥ 25.0 928 89.7 106 10.3 0.256 0.84 0.63 01.13
≥30.0 605 87.1 90 12.9 0.557 1.10 0.81 1.50
Abdominal Obesity         
No * 484 89.6 56 10.4 - - - -
Yes 1735 88.2 233 11.8 0.344 1.16 0.85 1.58
Sr. Cholesterol level (mmol/l)         
<5.2* 1555 88.0 212 12.0 - - - -
≥ 5.2 664 89.6 77 10.4 0.251 0.85 0.65 1.12
HbA1c level (%)         
≤8.5 * 1369 89.1 168 10.9 - - - -
>8.5 849 87.5 121 12.5 0.239 1.16 0.91 1.49
Duration of diabetes (years)         
< 2 173 84.0 33 16.0 0.036 1.53 1.03 2.26
≥ 2* 2046 88.9 256 11.1 - - - -
Co-morbidity         
No* 466 87.9 64 12.1 - - - -
Yes 1753 88.6 225 11.4 0.654 0.94 0.70 1.26
Psychiatric illness in family         
No* 2202 88.6 282 11.4 - - - -
Yes 17 70.8 7 29.2 0.010 3.22 1.32 7.82
Diabetes in family         
No* 582 88.0 79 12.0 - - - -
Yes 1637 88.6 210 11.4 0.688 0.945 0.718 1.245
Life events within the past 6 months         
No* 1221 88.9 152 11.1 - - - -
Yes 998 87.9 137 12.1 0.435 1.103 0.863 1.410
Smoking status      0.550    
Non smoker* 1842 88.2 247 11.8 - - - -
Former smoker 143 89.4 17 10.6 0.304 0.797 0.517 1.229
Current smoker 234 90.3 25 9.7 0.650 0.887 0.527 1.491
Current drinker         
No* 2140 88.6 274 11.4 - - - -
Yes 79 84.0 15 16.0 0.173 1.48 0.84 2.61
Leisure-time physical activity level         
Inactive 1077 87.4 155 12.6 0.103 1.23 0.96 1.57
Active* 1142 89.5 134 10.5 - - - -
  1. cOR –Crude odds ratio.
  2. *- Reference group.
  3. - Scores of 0–9 (normal).
  4. ‡ − Scores of ≥ 10 (mild, moderate, severe, extremely severe).