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Table 3 Frequency distribution of respondents by anxiety status and socio-demographic characteristics and other selected variables

From: Depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among diabetics in Malaysia: a cross sectional study in an urban primary care setting

Variables Anxiety symptoms P cOR 95% CI
No (n) (%) Yes (n) ‡ (%) Lower Upper
Age (Years)      0.006    
30 – 39* 102 64.6 56 35.4 - - - -
40 - 49 341 74.2 119 25.8 0.021 0.63 0.43 0.93
50 - 59 628 70.6 261 29.4 0.126 0.76 0.53 1.08
60 – 69 504 69.2 224 30.8 0.253 0.81 0.56 1.16
70 - 79 144 60.5 94 39.5 0.416 1.19 0.78 1.80
≥ 80 22 64.7 12 35.3 0.987 0.99 0.46 2.16
Sex         
Male* 710 72.8 265 27.2 - - - -
Female 1032 67.3 501 32.7 0.004 1.30 1.09 1.55
Ethnicity      0.022    
Malay* 911 71.0 372 29.0 - - - -
Chinese 314 71.7 124 28.3 0.778 0.97 0.76 1.23
Asian Indian 516 65.7 270 34.3 0.012 1.28 1.06 1.55
Educational Level      0.070    
None 184 64.6 101 35.4 0.045 1.43 1.01 2.04
Primary education 629 66.8 313 33.2 0.076 1.30 0.97 1.73
Secondary education 715 72.6 270 27.4 0.922 0.99 0.74 1.32
Tertiary education* 214 72.3 82 27.7 - - - -
Monthly household income (MHI) in Malaysian Ringgit (MYR)      0.001    
< 1,000 457 64.9 247 35.1 0.000 1.64 1.27 2.12
1,000 -< 3,000 912 69.7 396 30.3 0.022 1.32 1.04 1.67
≥ 3,000* 373 75.2 123 24.8 - - - -
Marital Status      0.010    
Never married 52 73.2 19 26.8 0.626 0.88 0.51 1.49
Divorced/widowed/separated 1445 70.6 603 29.4 0.003 1.41 1.12 1.77
Married* 245 63.0 144 37.0 - - - -
Current Job Status      0.000    
Unemployed 315 61.4 198 38.6 0.000 1.86 1.47 2.35
Housewives 530 67.9 251 32.1 0.002 1.40 1.13 1.74
Retired 265 72.0 103 28.0 0.326 1.15 0.87 1.51
Employed* 632 74.7 214 25.3 - - - -
BMI (kg/m 2 )      0.472    
< 25.0* 529 67.9 250 32.1 - - - -
≥ 25.0 721 69.7 313 30.3 0.407 0.92 0.75 1.12
≥ 30.0 492 70.8 203 29.2 0.023 0.87 0.70 1.09
Abdominal Obesity         
No* 373 69.1 167 30.9 - - - -
Yes 1369 69.6 599 30.4 0.827 0.98 0.80 1.20
Sr. Cholesterol level (mmol/l)         
<5.2* 1215 68.8 552 38.2 0.242 0.90 0.74 1.08
≥ 5.2 527 71.1 214 28.9 - - - -
HbA1c level (%)         
≤8.5* 1101 71.6 436 28.4 - - - -
>8.5 641 66.1 329 33.9 0.003 1.30 1.09 1.54
Duration of DM (years)         
< 2 158 76.7 48 23.3 0.019 1.49 1.07 2.09
≥ 2* 1584 68.8 718 31.2 - - - -
Co-morbidity         
No* 382 72.1 148 27.9 - - - -
Yes 1360 68.8 618 31.2 0.141 1.17 0.95 1.45
Psychiatric illness in family         
No* 1730 69.6 754 30.4 0.043 2.29 1.03 5.13
Yes 12 50.0 12 50.0 - - - -
Diabetes in family         
No* 477 72.2 184 37.8 0.079 1.19 0.98 1.45
Yes 1265 68.5 582 31.5 - - - -
Life events within the past 6 months         
No* 996 72.5 377 27.5 - - - -
Yes 746 65.7 389 34.3 0.000 1.38 1.16 1.63
Smoking status      0.064    
Non smoker* 1433 68.6 656 31.4 - - - -
Former smoker 186 71.8 73 28.2 0.030 0.66 0.45 0.96
Current smoker 123 76.9 37 23.1 0.292 0.86 0.64 1.14
Current drinker         
No* 1677 69.5 737 30.5 - - - -
Yes 65 69.1 29 30.9 0.947 1.015 0.650 1.59
Leisure-time physical activity level         
Active* 931 73.0 345 27.0 - - - -
Inactive 811 65.8 421 34.2 0.000 1.40 1.18 1.66
  1. cOR –Crude odds ratio.
  2. *- Reference group.
  3. - Scores of 0–7 (normal).
  4. ‡ − Scores of ≥ 8 (mild, moderate, severe, extremely severe).