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Table 3 Unadjusted and adjusted costs and outcomes per alternative models of care

From: Practice nurse involvement in primary care depression management: an observational cost-effectiveness analysis

  Before adjustment After adjustment1
Variables Low level model High level model High level minus low level model mean difference (95% CI) p value High level minus low level model mean difference (95% CI) p value
Proportion of depression-free days (mean) 0.55 0.51 -0.04 (-0.17 to 0.09) 0.54 -0.05 (-0.15 to 0.05) 0.31
Medicare out-of-hospital costs $1502 $2039 $537 (165 to 909) 0.005 $33 (-270 to 337) 0.83
Total pharmaceutical2 costs $1185 $1389 $204 (-340 to 749) 0.46 $147 (-161 to 456) 0.35
Total depression-related pharmaceutical costs3 $156 $171 $14 (-50 to 79) 0.65 $41 (-7 to 89) 0.09
Total hospital costs $1964 $1525 -$439 (-1513 to 636) 0.42 $181 (-742 to 1103) 0.70
Total depression-related hospital costs $92 $164 $72 (-206 to 351) 0.61 --- ---
Total costs $4652 $4954 $302 (-1155 to 1760) 0.68 $574 (-487 to 1635) 0.29
Total depression-related costs4 $1750 $2374 $624 (150 to 1098) 0.01 $135 (-315 to 584) 0.56
  1. 1Adjustment is based on propensity score weighted analysis. 2For all pharmaceuticals supplied under the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS). 3Antidepressant medications supplied under the PBS. 4Total depression-related costs = Medicare out-of-hospital costs + total depression-related pharmaceutical costs + total depression-related hospital costs.