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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants (n = 865)

From: Diagnostic characteristics and prognoses of primary-care patients referred for clinical exercise testing: a prospective observational study

  Total n = 865 Men n = 438 (50.6%) Women n = 427 (49.4%) p
Age, mean (SD) 63 (12) 63 (12) 64 (11) 0.030
University or college degree 134 (17.3%) 50/394 (12.7%) 84/380 (22.1%) 0.001
Smoker, current or previous 455 (52.9%) 245/436 (56.2%) 210/424 (49.5%) 0.050
Past medical history     
  Myocardial infarction 77 (9.0%) 57/434 (13.1%) 20/424 (4.7%) <0.001
  Revascularization 75 (8.7%) 60/436 (13.8%) 15/426 (3.5%) <0.001
  Stroke or TIA 51 (6.0%) 27/433 (6.2%) 24/422 (5.7%) 0.735
  Previous cardiovascular event 139 (16.3%) 92/432 (21.3%) 47/420 (11.2%) <0.001
Present conditions     
  Hypertension, medication for 464 (54.2%) 248/435 (57%) 216/421 (51.3%) 0.094
  Diabetes mellitus, treatment for 96 (11.2%) 56/434 (12.9%) 40/423 (9.5%) 0.110
  Dyslipidaemia, medication for 241 (28.2%) 144/433 (33.3%) 97/421 (23.0%) 0.001
  Congestive heart failure, medication for 104 (12.4%) 58/424 (13.7%) 46/414 (11.1%) 0.260
  Claudication 48 (5.7%) 25/430 (5.8%) 23/407 (5.7%) 0.919
Chest pain symptoms     
  Ever have chest pain or discomfort in the chest 587 (70.0%) 272/426 (63.8%) 315/412 (76.5%) <0.001
  Chest pain walking at an ordinary pace on the level 124 (14.7%) 59/431 (13.7%) 65/412 (15.8%) 0.392
  Chest pain walking uphill or in a hurry 408 (48.7%) 198/427 (46.4%) 210/411 (51.1%) 0.171
Angina diagnosis according to patient’s opinion 211 (26.4%) 111/404 (27.5%) 100/396 (25.3%) 0.476
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg), mean (SD) 147 (19) 148 (19) 147 (20) 0.503
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg), mean (SD) 84 (10) 85 (10) 84 (10) 0.043
Resting ECG     
  Normal resting ECG 639 (73.9%) 303/438 (69.2%) 336/427 (78.7%) 0.001
  Atrial fibrillation 38 (4.4%) 27/438 (6.2%) 11/427 (2.6%) 0.010
  Atrioventricular block 23 (2.7%) 17/438 (3.9%) 6/427 (1.4%) 0.024
  Signs of myocardial scarring 73 (8.4%) 45/438 (10.3%) 28/427 (6.6%) 0.049
  Pathologic ST-T segment on resting ECG 106 (12.3%) 59/438 (13.5%) 47/427 (11.0%) 0.269
  1. SD: standard deviation. TIA: transitory ischaemic attack. ECG: electrocardiogram. Cardiovascular event: myocardial infarction, revascularization, stroke, or TIA. Myocardial scarring: pathologic Q-wave or altered R-wave progression compared to previous ECG.