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Table 4 Bivariate comparison between specific direct costs (€), FIQ scores, and potential personality disorders (PD)

From: Impact of IPDE-SQ personality disorders on the healthcare and societal costs of fibromyalgia patients: a cross-sectional study

  N Medication (M, SD) Tests (M, SD) Primary care services (M, SD) Specialist services (M, SD)
FIQ   p = 0.24 p = 0.06 p= 0.02* p< 0.01*
[15,40] 20 84.5 (113.1) 84.9 (106.1) 81.0 (82.8) 90.4 (83.0)
(40,50] 25 100.1 (133.8) 125.7 (137.3) 123.5 (154.3) 145.2 (196.1)
(50,60] 41 229.9 (544.7) 131.4 (134.8) 103.6 (76.4) 148.5 (109.9)
(60,70] 47 222.3 (284.0) 186.9 (160.6) 183.9 (218.1) 399.6 (532.9)
(70,90] 24 110.4 (208.2) 271.7 (493.5) 240.1 (316.9) 332.5 (358.2)
PD b   p = 0.24 p = 0.71 p= 0.03* P< 0.01*
No 55 132.3 (236.1) 154.3 (155.7) 110.6 (114.5) 156.7 (148.0)
Yes 102 190.6 (382.1) 167.1 (270.2) 169.4 (223.6) 290.9 (423.8)
  1. Note: For each cost variable the table presents its mean (M) and standard deviation (SD)
  2. *p-value for the t-test/ANOVA for differences in costs
  3. bComparisons FMS + PD vs. FMS without PD. We computed Cohen’s d (rule of thumb: 0.20 = small; 0.50 = medium; 0.80 = large). The magnitude of the effect size was small to medium in both primary care services (d = 0.31) and in specialist services (d = 0.38)