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Table 4 Unadjusted and adjusted differences in direct health-care costs following a consultation at the GPC

From: The impact of substituting general practitioners with nurse practitioners on resource use, production and health-care costs during out-of-hours: a quasi-experimental study

  Experimental vs control arm
experimental arm control arm Mean difference 95 % CI
Unadjusted mean cost per consultation (minimal medication costs) €44,93 €46,98 €-2,04* €-3,79; €-0,29
Adjusted mean cost per consultation (minimal medication costs)    €-1,53 €-3,36; €0,46
  Experimental arm GP vs NP
GP NP Mean difference 95 % CI
Unadjusted mean cost per consultation (minimal medication costs) €46,17 €38,59 €-7,58** €-10,82; €-4,34
Adjusted mean cost per consultation (minimal medication costs)    €-3,34* €-5,97; €-0,65
  1. Tested within a linear regression model. Adjusted estimates are adjusted for age, gender, urgency level and ICPC group
  2. * p < .05
  3. ** p < .001