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Table 3 Association between baseline pain and insomnia symptoms and restricted social activity at follow-up

From: Musculoskeletal pain and co-morbid insomnia in adults; a population study of the prevalence and impact on restricted social participation

  Model I Model II Model III Model IV
Baseline Pain 1.8* (1.2,2.9) 1.1 (0.7,1.8) 1.1 (0.6,1.8) 1.3 (0.7,2.4)
Delayed sleep onset 2.9** (1.8,4.8) 2.4** (1.4,4.1) 2.6** (1.5,4.5) 7.6** (2.3,25.4)
Difficulty maintaining sleep 1.3 (0.8,2.1) 1.1 (0.7,1.8) 1.0 (0.6,1.6) 1.0 (0.6,1.6)
Early waking 1.5 (0.8,2.6) 1.4 (0.8,2.5) 1.4 (0.7,2.5) 1.3 (0.7,2.5)
Non-restorative sleep 2.0** (1.3,3.1) 1.0 (0.6,1.6) 0.9 (0.6,1.5) 0.9 (0.6,1.5)
Age 1.5** (1.2,1.8) 1.2 (0.98,1.5) 1.2 (0.9,1.5) 1.2 (0.9,1.5)
Gender 1.2 (0.97,1.4) 1.1 (0.9,1.4) 1.2 (0.97,1.4) 1.2 (0.96,1.4)
Manual occupation 1.2 (0.98,1.4) 1.1 (0.9,1.3) 1.0 (0.8,1.2) 1.0 (0.8,1.2)
Possible/probable Depression - 1.8** (1.5,2.1) 1.5** (1.3,1.8) 1.5** (1.2,1.8)
Possible/probable Anxiety - 1.3* (1.0,1.6) 1.2 (0.9,1.4) 1.2 (0.9,1.5)
Poor physical function (Lowest tertilea) - 2.7** (1.7,4.4) 1.9* (1.1,3.2) 2.0** (1.2,3.3)
Moderate physical function (mid tertilea) - 1.3 (0.8,2.2) 1.2 (0.7,2.1) 1.2 (0.7,2.0)
Baseline RSA - - 4.6** (3.0,7.1) 4.6** (3.0,7.1)
Pain x delayed sleep onset interaction - -   0.3* (0.1,0.99)
Model fit: AUROC 0.730 0.805 0.829 0.830
Hosmer-Lemeshow test p = .308 (83.2%) p = .435 (85.4%) p = .394 (86.5%) p = .414 (86.6%)
  1. Multivariate model I: Pain, each insomnia symptom, and sociodemographic factors. Model II: Pain, each insomnia symptom, sociodemographic factors, anxiety, depression and physical health related quality of life. Model III: Pain, each insomnia symptom, sociodemographic factors, anxiety, depression, physical health related quality of life and baseline social participation. Model IV: Model 3 plus the inclusion of an interaction term between pain and delayed sleep onset. All values are Exp (beta) with 95% confidence intervals. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, − variable not included in the model
  2. aReferent group was those participants in the tertile with the highest physical function scores
  3. AUROC – Area Under the Receiver Operator Characteristic curve. Hosmer & Lemeshow test reported as p-value (insignificant p-value indicates good fit) and proportion of cases correctly classified