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Table 2 Risk of bias of the included observational studies (9-item Cochrane checklist for observational studies)

From: Criteria in diagnosing nocturnal leg cramps: a systematic review

  Groups well defined Selection bias Exposure Outcome Blinding Follow-up Loss to follow up Confounding Generalizability
Angeli 1996 [20] 6/9 + - + + - + + - +
Baskol 2004 [21] 6/9 + + + + - ? ? + +
Garrison 2015 [22] 9/9 + + + + + + + + +
Garrison 2012 [2] 6/9 + - - + + + + - +
Hawke 2013 [4] 9/9 + + + + + + + + +
Hawke 2013 [23] 9/9 + + + + + + + + +
Hirai 2000 [24] 4/9 + - + + - ? ? - +
Naylor 1994 [25] 5/9 + + + - + ? ? ? +
Nishant 2014 [26] 5/9 + - + + - + - - +
Oboler 1991 [27] 4/9 + - + + - ? ? - +
  1. Baskol 2004 [21], Garrison 2015 [22], Hawke 2013 [4] and Hawke 2013 [24] showed low risk of bias